AnesthesiaFile® (ISSN 0740-1914) is published monthly by Dannemiller, Inc. Each volume consists of 12 issues published monthly. Office: 5711 Northwest Parkway, San Antonio, TX 78249-3360.

Intended Audience

Anesthesiologists, Pharmacists, Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists and other anesthesiology professionals.

Learning Objectives

Each issue of AnesthesiaFile® contains 30 educationally sound, original learning objectives. Refer to each issue.

Statement of Need

Anesthesiologists, Pharmacists, CRNAs, and other anesthesia professionals must continually update their degree of knowledge on the latest medical advances and cutting edge research. Our subscribers have clearly indicated that the information provided in AnesthesiaFile® Pro/Premium facilitates learning. Participants have overwhelmingly indicated that the journal provides information that is relevant to their practice, helps keep them current in the field, and they would not have read if they did not subscribe to AnesthesiaFile® Pro/Premium.

Method of Participation

This month's material should take approximately 3 hours to complete. Participants should first read the objectives and other introductory CME/CE information, then read each abstract carefully. To receive credit for this material, participants must complete the post-test with a passing score of 80%, then complete the evaluation. CRNAs are not permitted to retest. Participants may either navigate to and login using their unique user ID or fill out the attached form and return it to Dannemiller to complete the post-test and evaluation. This credit is valid through December 31, 2020 unless otherwise indicated. No credit will be given after this date.

In the event you have questions about this activity or are unable to print the certificate, please email and a certificate will be emailed within 2 weeks.

System requirements

  • Computer, tablet, or smartphone with internet access
  • Web browser (Chrome, Firefox, IE 11+) with javascript enabled
  • HTML5 compatible browser or Adobe Flash Player


In support of improving patient care, Dannemiller is jointly accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME), the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE), and the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC), to provide continuing education for the healthcare team.


Dannemiller designates this enduring material for a maximum of 3.0 AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

This activity contributes to the CME component of the American Board of Anesthesiology's redesigned Maintenance of Certification in Anesthesiology™ (MOCA®) program, known as MOCA 2.0®. Please consult the ABA website,, for a list of all MOCA 2.0 requirements.

ABA MOCA® Part 2

This activity fulfills the general CME requirement for MOCA Part 2.

Registered Nurses

Dannemiller designates this educational activity for 3.0 contact hours.

Pharmacists (Premium and Pro Only)

Dannemiller has assigned 12.00 contact hours (12.00 CEUs) of continuing pharmacy education credit to this activity. ACPE program number JA0002448-0000-20-001-H04-P.

Nurse Anesthetists

AnesthesiaFile® is in compliance with the new CPC Program requirements, created by the NBCRNA, and are classified as Class A CE credits. CRNAs may also apply excess Class A assessed CE credits to fulfill the Class B requirements. Please visit the NBCRNA website for more information regarding the new CPC Program and how it will affect your upcoming recertification.
  • AnesthesiaFile® Pro/Premium 2020 has been prior approved by the American Association of Nurse Anesthetists for 36 Class A CE credits; AANA Code Number 1038462; Expiration Date 12/31/2021.
  • AnesthesiaFile® Basic 2020, has been prior approved by the American Association of Nurse Anesthetists for 36 Class A CE credits; AANA Code Number 1038479; Expiration Date 12/31/2021.
  • AnesthesiaFile® Pro/Premium 2019 has been prior approved by the American Association of Nurse Anesthetists for 36 Class A CE credits; AANA Code Number 1037074; Expiration Date 12/31/2020.
  • AnesthesiaFile® Basic 2019, has been prior approved by the American Association of Nurse Anesthetists for 36 Class A CE credits; AANA Code Number 1037062; Expiration Date 12/31/2020.

AANA designates AnesthesiaFile® Pro/Premium as meeting the criteria for up to 12.00 CE Credits in pharmacology/therapeutics.

NOTE: Credit designations for physicians and registered nurses are identified per module whereas AANA guidelines stipulate that AANA credit be identified for the totality of the program.


Editor-in-Chief: James B. Eisenkraft, M.D.

Professor of Anesthesiology

Mount Sinai School of Medicine at New York University New York, NY

Assistant Editor: Sandra M. Ouellette, CRNA, M.Ed.

Former Director, Nurse Anesthesia Program North Carolina Baptist Hospital

Winston-Salem, NC

Publications Project Manager: Theresa M. Nycz

San Antonio, TX


In accordance with the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME), Dannemiller requires that any person who is in a position to control the content of a CME activity must disclose all relevant financial relationships they have with a commercial interest. James B. Eisenkraft, MD, Editor-in-Chief, and Sandra Ouellette, Associate Editor, have stated that they have nothing to disclose. Theresa Nycz, Dannemiller Publications Project Manager, stated that she has nothing to disclose.

To resolve identified conflicts of interest, the educational content was reviewed by James B. Eisenkraft, MD, Editor in Chief, who has nothing to disclose. The resulting certified activity was found to provide educational content that is current, evidence-based and commercially balanced.

Off-label Statement

This educational activity may contain discussion of published and/or investigational uses of agents that are not indicated by FDA. The opinions expressed in the educational activity are those of the faculty. Please refer to the official prescribing information for each product for discussion of approved indications, contraindications, and warnings. Further, attendees/participants should appraise the information presented critically and are encouraged to consult appropriate resources for any product or device mentioned in this program.


The content and views presented in these educational activities are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of Dannemiller. This material is prepared based upon a review of multiple sources of information, but it is not exhaustive of the subject matter. Therefore, healthcare professionals and other individuals should review and consider other publications and materials on the subject matter before relying solely upon the information contained within this educational activity.